Inclusion: noncollege whites – data

Lane Kenworthy, The Good Society
April 2017

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Population share
Employment
Wages, income, living standards
Health
Safety
Happiness
Behaviors
Beliefs and attitudes
Political views and voting

POPULATION SHARE

Figure 1. Whites with less than four years of college as a share of all whites
Persons age 25 and over. Data source: Census Bureau, “Educational Attainment: CPS Historical Time Series Tables,” table A-2.

Figure 2. Whites with less than a four-year college degree as a share of the total population
Persons age 25 and older. Data source: General Social Survey, sda.berkeley.edu, series race, degree.

EMPLOYMENT

Figure 3. Employment rate
Employed persons age 25-64 as a share of the population age 25-64. “Noncollege” = less than a bachelor’s degree. The lines are loess curves. Data source: General Social Survey, sda.berkeley.edu, series wrkstat.

Figure 4. Manufacturing employment rate
Manufacturing employees as share of the population aged 15-64. All racial and education groups. Data sources: Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, FRED database, series manemp; Bureau of Labor Statistics, series LNU00024887, LNU00000060, LNU00000095.

Figure 5. Employment rate by gender
Employed persons aged 25-54 as a share of the population aged 25-54. All racial and education groups. Data source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, series LNU02300061, LNU02300062.

Figure 6. It’s unlikely I will lose my job in the next year
Share of persons age 25 and older. “Noncollege” = less than a bachelor’s degree. The lines are loess curves. Question: “Thinking about the next 12 months, how likely do you think it is that you will lose your job or be laid off?” Response options: very likely, fairly likely, not too likely, not likely. The lines show the share responding not too likely or not likely. Data source: General Social Survey, sda.berkeley.edu, series joblose.

Figure 7. Satisfied with job
Share of persons age 25 and older. “Noncollege” = less than a bachelor’s degree. The lines are loess curves. Question: “On the whole, how satisfied are you with the work you do?” Response options: very satisfied, moderately satisfied, a little dissatisfied, very dissatisfied. The lines show the share responding very satisfied or moderately satisfied. Data source: General Social Survey, sda.berkeley.edu, series jobsat.

WAGES, INCOME, LIVING STANDARDS

Figure 8. Wages
Hourly wage, in 2016 dollars. Employed persons age 18-64. Noncollege whites: the three lines are for (from highest to lowest) some college, high school degree only, and less than high school degree. College grads all races: the two lines are for (from highest to lowest) advanced degree and bachelor’s degree. Data source: Economic Policy Institute, epi.org/data, using data from the Current Population Survey outgoing rotation group.

Figure 9. Household income
Average household income, adjusted for inflation. “k” = thousand. Persons age 25 and older. “Noncollege” = less than a bachelor’s degree. The lines are loess curves. Data source: General Social Survey, sda.berkeley.edu, series coninc.

Figure 10. Standard of living is better than parents’
Share of persons age 25 and older. “Noncollege” = less than a bachelor’s degree. The lines are loess curves. Question: “Compared to your parents when they were the age you are now, do you think your own standard of living now is much better, somewhat better, about the same, somewhat worse, or much worse than theirs was?” The lines show the share responding much better or somewhat better. Data source: General Social Survey, sda.berkeley.edu, series parsol.

Figure 11. Good chance of improving standard of living
Share of persons age 25 and older. “Noncollege” = less than a bachelor’s degree. The lines are loess curves. Question: “The way things are in America, people like me and my family have a good chance of improving our standard of living. Do you agree or disagree?” Response options: strongly agree, agree, neither agree nor disagree, disagree, strongly disagree. The lines show the share responding strongly agree or agree. Data source: General Social Survey, sda.berkeley.edu, series goodlife.

HEALTH

Figure 12. Health is fair or poor
Share of persons age 25 and older. “Noncollege” = less than a bachelor’s degree. The lines are loess curves. Question: “Would you say your own health, in general, is excellent, good, fair, or poor?” Data source: General Social Survey, sda.berkeley.edu, series health.

SAFETY

Figure 13. Afraid to walk alone at night in neighborhood
Share of persons age 25 and older. “Noncollege” = less than a bachelor’s degree. The lines are loess curves. Question: “Is there any area right around here — that is, within a mile — where you would be afraid to walk alone at night?” Data source: General Social Survey, sda.berkeley.edu, series fear.

HAPPINESS

Figure 14. Not too happy
Share of persons age 25 and older. “Noncollege” = less than a bachelor’s degree. The lines are loess curves. Question: “Taken all together, how would you say things are these days — would you say that you are very happy, pretty happy, or not too happy?” Data source: General Social Survey, sda.berkeley.edu, series happy.

BEHAVIORS

Figure 15. Married
Persons age 35-64 who are married as a share of all persons age 35-64. “Noncollege” = less than a bachelor’s degree. The lines are loess curves. Question: “Are you currently — married, widowed, divorced, separated, or have you never been married?” Data source: General Social Survey, sda.berkeley.edu, series marital.

Figure 16. Religious
Share of persons age 25 and older. “Noncollege” = less than a bachelor’s degree. The lines are loess curves. Question: “What is your religious preference? Is it Protestant, Catholic, Jewish, some other religion, or no religion?” The figures shown here are calculated as 100 minus the share who respond “no religion.” Data source: General Social Survey, sda.berkeley.edu, series relig.

Figure 17. Pray
Share of persons age 25 and older. “Noncollege” = less than a bachelor’s degree. The lines are loess curves. Question: “About how often do you pray?” Response options: several times a day, once a day, several times a day, once a week, less than once a week, never. The figures shown here are calculated as 100 minus the share who respond “never.” Data source: General Social Survey, sda.berkeley.edu, series pray.

Figure 18. Gun in home
Share of persons age 25 and older. “Noncollege” = less than a bachelor’s degree. The lines are loess curves. GSS question: “Do you happen to have in your home (or garage) any guns or revolvers?” Data source: General Social Survey, sda.berkeley.edu, series owngun.

BELIEFS AND ATTITUDES

Figure 19. Preschool child is likely to suffer if mother works
Share of persons age 25 and older. “Noncollege” = less than a bachelor’s degree. The lines are loess curves. Question: “A preschool child is likely to suffer if his or her mother works.” Response options: strongly agree, agree, disagree, strongly disagree. The lines show the share responding strongly agree or agree. Data source: General Social Survey, sda.berkeley.edu, series fepresch.

Figure 20. Oppose living in a half-black neighborhood
Share of persons age 25 and older. “Noncollege” = less than a bachelor’s degree. The lines are loess curves. Question: “Now I’m going to ask you about different types of contact with various groups of people. In each situation would you please tell me whether you would be very much in favor of it happening, somewhat in favor, neither in favor nor opposed to it happening, somewhat opposed, or very much opposed to it happening? Living in a neighborhood where half of your neighbors were black.” The lines show the share responding somewhat opposed or very much opposed. Data source: General Social Survey, series marblk.

Figure 21. Oppose a close relative marrying a black person
Share of persons age 25 and older. “Noncollege” = less than a bachelor’s degree. The lines are loess curves. Question: “What about having a close relative marry a black person? Would you be very in favor of it happening, somewhat in favor, neither in favor nor opposed to it happening, somewhat opposed, or very opposed to it happening?” The lines show the share responding somewhat opposed or very opposed. Data source: General Social Survey, series marblk.

Figure 22. Homosexuality is wrong
Share of persons age 25 and older. “Noncollege” = less than a bachelor’s degree. The lines are loess curves. Question: “What about sexual relations between two adults of the same sex? Do you think it is wrong or not wrong?” Response options: always wrong, almost always wrong, wrong sometimes, not wrong at all. The lines show the share responding always wrong or almost always wrong. Data source: General Social Survey, sda.berkeley.edu, series homosex.

Figure 23. Marijuana shouldn’t be legal
Share of persons age 25 and older. “Noncollege” = less than a bachelor’s degree. The lines are loess curves. Question: “Do you think the use of marijuana should be made legal or not?” Data source: General Social Survey, sda.berkeley.edu, series grass.

Figure 24. Public schools should be allowed to require Christian prayer
Share of persons age 25 and older. “Noncollege” = less than a bachelor’s degree. The lines are loess curves. Question: “The United States Supreme Court has ruled that no state or local government may require the reading of the Lord’s Prayer or Bible verses in public schools. What are your views on this — do you approve or disapprove of the court ruling?” The lines show the share responding disapprove. Data source: General Social Survey, sda.berkeley.edu, series prayer.

Figure 25. Abortion shouldn’t be legal if the woman wants it for an unspecified reason
Share of persons age 25 and older. “Noncollege” = less than a bachelor’s degree. The lines are loess curves. Question: “Please tell me whether or not you think it should be possible for a pregnant woman to obtain a legal abortion if the woman wants it for any reason?” Data source: General Social Survey, sda.berkeley.edu, series abany.

Figure 26. Abortion shouldn’t be legal if the woman became pregnant as a result of rape
Share of persons age 25 and older. “Noncollege” = less than a bachelor’s degree. The lines are loess curves. Question: “Please tell me whether or not you think it should be possible for a pregnant woman to obtain a legal abortion if she became pregnant as a result of rape?” Data source: General Social Survey, sda.berkeley.edu, series abrape.

Figure 27. Too much spending on improving and protecting the environment
Share of persons age 25 and older. “Noncollege” = less than a bachelor’s degree. The lines are loess curves. Question: “We are faced with many problems in this country, none of which can be solved easily or inexpensively. I’m going to name some of these problems, and for each one I’d like you to tell me whether you think we’re spending too much money on it, too little money, or about the right amount. Improving and protecting the environment.” Data source: General Social Survey, sda.berkeley.edu, series natenvir.

Figure 28. Climate change isn’t dangerous
Share of persons age 25 and older. “Noncollege” = less than a bachelor’s degree. The lines are loess curves. Question: “In general, do you think that a rise in the world’s temperature caused by the ‘greenhouse effect’ is extremely dangerous, very dangerous, somewhat dangerous, not very dangerous, or not dangerous.” The lines show the share responding not very dangerous or not dangerous. Data source: General Social Survey, sda.berkeley.edu, series tempgen, tempgen1.

Figure 29. Too much spending on assistance to the poor
Share of persons age 25 and older. “Noncollege” = less than a bachelor’s degree. The lines are loess curves. Question: “We are faced with many problems in this country, none of which can be solved easily or inexpensively. I’m going to name some of these problems, and for each one I’d like you to tell me whether you think we’re spending too much money on it, too little money, or about the right amount. Assistance to the poor.” Data source: General Social Survey, sda.berkeley.edu, series natfarey.

Figure 30. Too much spending on welfare
Share of persons age 25 and older. “Noncollege” = less than a bachelor’s degree. The lines are loess curves. Question: “We are faced with many problems in this country, none of which can be solved easily or inexpensively. I’m going to name some of these problems, and for each one I’d like you to tell me whether you think we’re spending too much money on it, too little money, or about the right amount. Welfare.” Data source: General Social Survey, sda.berkeley.edu, series natfare.

Figure 31. Most people can’t be trusted
Share of persons age 25 and older. “Noncollege” = less than a bachelor’s degree. The lines are loess curves. Question: “Generally speaking, would you say that most people can be trusted or that you can’t be too careful in life?” Data source: General Social Survey, sda.berkeley.edu, series trust.

POLITICAL VIEWS AND VOTING

Figure 32. Conservative
Share of persons age 25 and older. “Noncollege” = less than a bachelor’s degree. The lines are loess curves. Question: “We hear a lot of talk these days about liberals and conservatives. I’m going to show you a seven-point scale on which the political views that people might hold are arranged from extremely liberal (point 1) to extremely conservative (point 7). Where would you place yourself on this scale?” The lines show the share responding slightly conservative, conservative, or extremely conservative (points 5-7). Data source: General Social Survey, sda.berkeley.edu, series polviews.

Figure 33. Republican vote margin in presidential elections
Republican share minus Democratic share among those voting for one of the two major-party candidates. “Noncollege” = less than four years of college. Solid line for noncollege whites: American National Election Studies (ANES) data, sda.berkeley.edu. Dashed line for noncollege whites: exit poll data.