Lane Kenworthy, The Good Society
Figure 1. Democracy
Average for all nations with population greater than 500,000. Scale is -10 to +10. Data source: HumanProgress, “Democracy versus Autocracy Over Time,” using data from Polity IV Annual Time-Series.
Figure 2. GDP per capita
Adjusted for inflation and converted to 2011 US dollars using purchasing power parities. “k” = thousand. Data source: Maddison Project Database 2018, rug.nl/ggdc. “Asl” is Australia; “Aus” is Austria.
Figure 3. Work hours
Average weekly work hours per person engaged in nonagricultural activities. Data source: Max Roser, “Working Hours,” Our World in Data, using data in Michael Huberman and Chris Minns, “The Times They Are Not Changin’: Days and Hours of Work in Old and New Worlds, 1870–2000,” Explorations in Economic History, 2007. “Asl” is Australia.
INSURANCE, FAIRNESS, AND OPPORTUNITY
Figure 4. Public social programs
Share of GDP. Data source: Esteban Ortiz-Ospina and Max Roser, “Public Spending,” Our World in Data, using data for 1880-1930 from Peter Lindert, Growing Public, volume 1, Cambridge University Press, 2004, data for 1960-1979 from OECD, “Social Expenditure 1960-1990: Problems of Growth and Control,” OECD Social Policy Studies, 1985, and data for 1980ff from OECD, Social Expenditures Database. “Asl” is Australia; “Aus” is Austria.
Figure 5. Life expectancy
Years at birth. Data source: Max Roser, “Life Expectancy,” Our World in Data, using data before 2000 from James C. Riley, “Estimates of Regional and Global Life Expectancy, 1800–2001,” Population and Development Review, 2005 and data for 2000ff from the World Health Organization.
Figure 6. Homicides
Per 100,000 population. Data sources: 1700-1900 from Claude S. Fischer, “A Crime Puzzle,” Made in America, 2010; 1900-1932 from Douglas Lee Eckberg, “Estimates of Early Twentieth-Century U.S. Homicide Rates: an Econometric Forecasting Approach,” Demography, 1995, table 4; 1933-1950 from M. Duane Smith and Margaret A. Zahn, eds., Homicide: Sourcebook of Social Research, Sage, 1998, figure 2.1, using FBI data; 1950ff from Bureau of Justice Statistics, using FBI Uniform Crime Reports data.
Figure 7. Literacy
Data source: Max Roser and Esteban Ortiz-Ospina, “Literacy,” Our World in Data, using data for 1820-2000 from OECD, How Was Life? Global Well-Being since 1820, 2014 and data for 2004ff from UNESCO, data.uis.unesco.org.
Figure 8. Homosexuality decriminalized
Number of countries. Data source: Steven Pinker, Enlightenment Now, 2018, figure 15.5.
Figure 9. Women’s employment
Employed women aged 25-54 as a share of women aged 25-54. The vertical axis doesn’t begin at zero. Data source: OECD. “Asl” is Australia; “Aus” is Austria.
Figure 10. Religiosity by economic affluence across countries
55 nations. The line is a linear regression line, calculated with Kuwait and Qatar excluded. Religiosity is the share of the population that says “religion is very important in my life” as of 2010-2014. Survey question: “For each of the following, indicate how important it is in your life: religion.” Response options: very important, rather important, not very important, not at all important, no answer. Data source: World Values Survey, worldvaluessurvey.org/wvsonline.jsp. GDP per capita in 2007. In purchasing-power-parity-adjusted dollars. Data source: World Bank.
Figure 11. Children living with two parents
Children living with two parents: share of children. Data source: OECD Family Database; for the US, Census Bureau, “Living Arrangements of Children,” table CH-1. Children living with both biological parents at age 16: share of children. Decade averages. Data source: General Social Survey, sda.berkeley.edu, series family16. The vertical axis doesn’t begin at zero. “Asl” is Australia; “Aus” is Austria.
Figure 12. Top 1%’s share of income
Pretax income. Excludes capital gains. Data source: World Inequality Database. “Asl” is Australia; “Aus” is Austria.
Figure 13. Temperature
Difference from the 1910-2000 average. Land and ocean. Data source: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, ncdc.noaa.gov/cag/time-series/global. The line is a loess curve.