Soci 1: quiz questions

Lane Kenworthy
Summer 2018

OPPORTUNITY

1. In “Equality of Opportunity,” I say that social scientists typically measure equality of opportunity by looking at

a. Discrimination
b. Outcomes such as employment, earnings, and income

2. In “Equality of Opportunity,” I report that an American who grew up in a family in the bottom fifth of incomes between the mid-1960s and the mid-1980s has what chance of reaching the middle fifth or higher in adulthood?

a. 30%
b. 60%

3. In “Equality of Opportunity,” I say the reasons why Americans from low-income families tend to have lower income when they become adults include which of the following?

a. Poorer children are less likely to grow up in a home with both of their original parents
b. Low-income parents are more likely to be anxious and stressed
c. Children in low-income families are more likely to grow up in a neighborhood with high crime, with few employed adults, and with weak organizations
d. All of the above

4. True or false: In “Equality of Opportunity,” I say that eight studies have tried to directly measure change in relative intergenerational income mobility in recent decades, and all of them conclude that the opportunity gap stemming from family background has widened (inequality of opportunity has increased).

a. True
b. False

5. This chart shows

a. The correlation between parents’ earnings and children’s earnings
b. The fraction of children younger than five in government-funded childcare and preschool

INCOME INEQUALITY

1. In Inequality for All, Robert Reich asks “Is income inequality a problem?” His answer is

a. Yes
b. No

2. In Inequality for All, Robert Reich says a higher income share for the top 1% contributes to

a. Weaker democracy
b. Inequality of opportunity
c. Poorer health
d. All of the above

3. In Inequality for All, Robert Reich says a higher income share for the top 1% is bad for economic growth. The reason is that

a. The rich spend too much of their income, so higher inequality means too little saving and investment
b. The rich spend a smaller portion of their income than the middle class and the poor, so higher inequality means less consumer demand

4. True or false: In Inequality for All, Robert Reich says a higher income share for the top 1% contributes to economic crises, including the 2008-09 crisis.

a. True
b. False

5. True or false: In Inequality for All, Robert Reich says rising income inequality is the main reason why incomes for ordinary Americans have grown slowly since the late 1970s.

a. True
b. False

FAMILY

1. In “Families,” I show that as a society gets richer, more women stay in school longer and have paid jobs and people attach greater importance to individual freedom and choice. I say this is likely to

a. Increase marriage
b. Decrease marriage

2. True or false: In “Families,” I say research indicates that children tend to fare worse as adults if they grew up in a family with one parent rather than two.

a. True
b. False

3. This chart shows the rate of

a. Out-of-wedlock births
b. Teen births

4. In “Families,” I show that the weakening of family in the United States has occurred more among those

a. With a four-year college degree or more
b. Without a four-year college degree

5. True or false: In “Families,” I say that policy efforts to increase marriage — increasing financial incentives, offering intensive marital counseling sessions and support services — have so far largely failed.

a. True
b. False

IMMIGRATION

1. Ai Weiwei’s film Human Flow focuses mainly on the flow of people in recent years

a. From Syria, Iraq, and Afghanistan to other Middle Eastern countries and Western Europe
b. From Mexico and Central American countries to the United States
c. From western China to eastern China

2. According to Ai Weiwei’s film Human Flow, the people leaving Syria, Iraq, and Afghanistan are mainly

a. Economic migrants seeking better jobs and higher wages
b. Refugees fleeing from war or persecution

3. According to Ai Weiwei’s film Human Flow, the number of people in the world who have been displaced from their homes is approximately

a. 60 million
b. 600 million

4. According to Ai Weiwei’s film Human Flow, the average refugee is displaced from their home for

a. 26 months
b. 26 years

5. True or false: In Ai Weiwei’s film Human Flow, nearly all refugees in the countries shown — Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan, Greece, Italy — live in official refugee camps administered by the United Nations and humanitarian aid groups.

a. True
b. False

GUNS

1. True or false: In “Liberalism’s Gun Problem,” Ross Douthat says the chief reason to oppose gun restrictions is that the second amendment guarantees Americans the right to own any kind of gun.

a. True
b. False

2. True or false: In “Liberalism’s Gun Problem,” Ross Douthat says two types of gun restrictions that were tried in the 1990s — background checks for handgun buyers and a ban on assault weapons — failed to have an impact on gun homicides.

a. True
b. False

3. In “Liberalism’s Gun Problem,” Ross Douthat says the fundamental problem with focusing on gun restrictions as a way to reduce gun deaths is that

a. There are about 300 millions guns already in private hands in the US
b. Police officers tend to oppose gun restrictions and therefore are reluctant to enforce them

4. True or false: In “Liberalism’s Gun Problem,” Ross Douthat says Australia’s gun buyback policy, which American liberals often point to as a successful example of gun control, actually mainly reduced suicides rather than homicides.

a. True
b. False

5. True or false: In “Liberalism’s Gun Problem,” Ross Douthat says that to reduce the number of guns enough to actually reduce homicides would require a degree of aggressiveness by police that would generate a large backlash and a thriving black market in guns.

a. True
b. False

EDUCATION

1. In “What Good Is Education?,” I say the best measure of educational attainment is

a. Years of schooling completed
b. Skill assessments
c. It depends

2. In “What Good Is Education?,” I conclude that education tends to

a. Increase earnings and income for individuals
b. Have little or no impact on economic growth for already-rich nations
c. Both A and B

3. In “What Good Is Education?,” I conclude that education tends to be positively correlated with interpersonal trust

a. Across individuals
b. Across the rich democratic countries
c. Both A and B

4. In “What Good Is Education?,” I say education helps individuals by improving

a. Cognitive abilities
b. Noncognitive skills
c. Both A and B

5. True or false: In “What Good Is Education?,” I conclude that education is good for individuals on virtually all outcomes.

a. True
b. False

GENDER

1. In “The End of Men,” Hanna Rosin says women these days are faring better than they used to in our economy and society because

a. More women have adopted “male” traits such as individualism and aggressiveness
b. Today’s economy rewards “female” traits such as open communication and nurturing

2. In “The End of Men,” Hanna Rosin says the differences in behavior between women and men stem from

a. Biology
b. Socialization
c. Both A and B

3. In “The End of Men,” Hanna Rosin says that men have struggled to adapt to the new economy because

a. They’ve fallen behind women in educational attainment
b. They’ve been reluctant to enter jobs seen as “female”
c. Both A and B

4. True or false: In “The End of Men,” Hanna Rosin says that while economic developments in recent decades have favored women, we’re near the end of that trend, and the advantage will soon shift back to men.

a. True
b. False

5. True or false: In “The End of Men,” Hanna Rosin says males still tend to have the upper hand in less-affluent countries. In South Korea, for example, most parents prefer to have a boy rather than a girl.

a. True
b. False

INCLUSION: LGBTQs

1. True or false: Katie Couric’s video Gender Revolution says our genitalia doesn’t necessarily dictate the gender we identify as.

a. True
b. False

2. According to Katie Couric’s Gender Revolution, “intersex” babies, who have both female and male sex organs, are approximately

a. 1 out of every 2,000
b. 1 out of every 2 million

3. Katie Couric’s video Gender Revolution reports that over the past half century many “intersex” persons have been

a. Allowed to decide on their own which gender to identify as
b. Operated on shortly after birth to surgically impose a gender on them

4. According to Katie Couric’s Gender Revolution, a person whose gender identity is different from the one they were assigned at birth is

a. Cisgender
b. Transgender

5. True or false: In Gender Revolution, Katie Couric reports that one reason why some people are transgender is the amount of testosterone to which their brain is exposed during the second and third trimester of pregnancy.

a. True
b. False

WHAT DOES GOVERNMENT DO?

1. In “Social Programs,” I say government social programs tend to expand as countries get richer because

a. People want insurance against loss due to risk events
b. Government bureaucrats have an incentive to expand the programs they administer
c. Democracy is vulnerable to slow, steady growth of the “deep state”

2. In “Social Programs,” I show that in many of the rich democratic nations, the size and generosity of public social programs

a. Increased steadily from 1930 to today
b. Increased from 1930 to 1985 and then held constant

3. In “Social Programs,” I show that compared to other rich democratic countries, the US has a low level of _______ spending on social programs.

a. Public
b. Private
c. Both A and B

4. This chart, from “Social Programs,” shows government spending (as a share of GDP) on

a. Health
b. Active labor market programs

5. This chart, from “Social Programs,” shows recipients (as a share of the US population) of what US social program?

a. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)
b. Social Security

CONSEQUENCES OF BIG GOVERNMENT

1. In “Is Big Government Bad for Freedom, Civil Society, and Happiness?,” I show that Americans in the top 1% of incomes tend to pay approximately what share of their income in taxes?

a. 10%
b. 33%
c. 75%

2. True or false: In “Is Big Government Bad for Freedom, Civil Society, and Happiness?,” I show that people in countries with higher taxation and government spending tend to see themselves as less free to do what they wish with their lives.

a. True
b. False

3. True or false: In “Is Big Government Bad for Freedom, Civil Society, and Happiness?,” I show that in countries with higher levels of taxation and government spending, fewer children tend to grow up in two-parent families.

a. True
b. False

4. In “Is Big Government Bad for Freedom, Civil Society, and Happiness?,” I show that fewer Swedes than Americans say they are an active member of a civic group or organization. The gap in active membership between the two countries is about

a. 4 percentage points
b. 40 percentage points

5. True or false: In “Is Big Government Bad for Freedom, Civil Society, and Happiness?,” I show that in countries with higher levels of taxation and government spending, life satisfaction tends to be lower.

a. True
b. False

BALANCING WORK, FAMILY, AND LEISURE

1. True or false: In “Help for the Way We Work Now,” Sara Horowitz says the share of Americans who work as freelancers hasn’t changed much in recent decades.

a. True
b. False

2. In “Help for the Way We Work Now,” Sara Horowitz says the rise of freelance workers is a result of

a. America’s economic struggles
b. More people not wanting a conventional job
c. Both A and B

3. In “Help for the Way We Work Now,” Sara Horowitz says what people like most about freelancing is

a. It offers better pay and benefits
b. It gives them more flexibility and independence

4. In “Help for the Way We Work Now,” Sara Horowitz says that portable benefits, rather than benefits tied to a specific employer, would be better for freelancers who face which of the following risks

a. Unemployment
b. Health problem
c. Retirement
d. All of the above

5. In “Help for the Way We Work Now,” Sara Horowitz says freelance workers need better legal protections against _______ by employers.

a. Wage theft
b. Unfair firing

RACE

No quiz

AGE

1. In “Inclusion: The Elderly,” I say that for most Americans, income security in old age rests on some combination of five pillars, including all of the following except

a. Social Security and SSI
b. Employer-provided pensions
c. Unemployment insurance
d. Savings

2. In “Inclusion: The Elderly,” I say projections suggest that the retirement incomes of lower-middle-income and lower-income elderly Americans in coming decades

a. Aren’t likely to decline in absolute terms
b. Will fall farther and farther behind growth of the economy
c. Both A and B

3. In “Inclusion: The Elderly,” I say that Medicare pays approximately what share of medical expenses for elderly Americans?

a. 10%
b. 65%
c. 100%

4. True or false: In “Inclusion: The Elderly,” I say that in Sweden, whose approach to elder care is widely considered a model, nearly all elderly persons live in an institutional facility rather than in their home or with family members.

a. True
b. False

5. In “Inclusion: The Elderly,” I shows that the share of elderly Americans who say they are “not too happy” is _______ the share among 18-to-64-year-olds.

a. Larger than
b. The same as
c. Smaller than

CULTURE WARS

1. In “America’s Never-Ending Culture War,” Michael Kazin says that when news stations broadcast coverage of police officers beating up demonstrators at the Democratic Party convention in 1968, the majority of Americans said in subsequent public opinion polls that they sided with

a. The demonstrators
b. The police

2. In “America’s Never-Ending Culture War,” Michael Kazin says liberals and leftists still battle with conservatives over most of the big issues that roiled the nation back in the late 1960s, including all of the following except

a. When and how the police should use violence against unarmed civilians
b. Social Security reform
c. The right to abortion
d. Freedom for gays and lesbians

3. In “America’s Never-Ending Culture War,” Michael Kazin says a key reason liberal and conservative Americans are still fighting bitterly over cultural issues is

a. Republicans’ extensive use of the Senate filibuster
b. Each side is convinced that it is morally correct

4. In “America’s Never-Ending Culture War,” Michael Kazin says another key reason liberal and conservative Americans are still fighting bitterly over cultural issues is that

a. The Democratic and Republican parties have become more polarized
b. Neither the Democrats nor the Republicans have been able to dominate politics

5. In “America’s Never-Ending Culture War,” Michael Kazin says America will remain deeply divided on cultural issues until

a. Key leaders in the two political parties pursue a stance of negotiation and compromise
b. The left or the right wins a lasting victory

DO ELECTION OUTCOMES MATTER?

1. In “Do Election Outcomes Matter?,” I say the key axes of difference between the political left and right include all of the following except

a. Economic, with the left preferring more government support for security and fairness and the right prioritizing freedom for individuals and firms
b. Crime, with the left preferring rehabilitation and the right preferring punishment
c. Social-cultural, with the left emphasizing individual liberty and the right privileging order, tradition, and community
d. Foreign policy, with the left tending to be more isolationist and the right more favorably disposed to intervention abroad

2. True or false: In “Do Election Outcomes Matter?,” I say that when we compare across the rich democratic nations, governments headed by a social democratic or Christian centrist party have been far more likely than those headed by parties on the right to expand public insurance programs and public services.

a. True
b. False

3. In “Do Election Outcomes Matter?,” I conclude that there wasn’t a systematic difference between Republican and Democratic presidents on _______ of 28 outcomes over the period 1933-2016

a. A majority
b. Very few

4. In “Do Election Outcomes Matter?,” I show that since 1980 there has been a significant difference between Democratic and Republicans presidents on all of the following outcomes except

a. Poverty
b. Employment
c. Health insurance coverage
d. Earth’s average temperature

5. In “Do Election Outcomes Matter?,” I conclude that on the outcomes where there was a systematic difference between Republican and Democratic presidents over the period 1933-2016, performance was most often better under

a. Democratic presidents
b. Republican presidents