Soci 1: quiz questions

Lane Kenworthy
Summer 2019

CLIMATE CHANGE

1. In “Climate Stability,” I say we have strong evidence that since 1950

a. Carbon dioxide emissions have increased sharply
b. Carbon concentration in the atmosphere has increased sharply
c. The earth’s average temperature has increased sharply
d. All of the above

2. True or false: In “Climate Stability,” I say the one element of the climate change story that experts aren’t sure about is why computer simulations of the earth’s temperature differ so dramatically from actual measurements of its temperature.

a. True
b. False

3. True or false: In “Climate Stability,” I say there is now a consensus among climate experts that, if unchanged, the current trajectory of human-produced carbon dioxide emissions will threaten the viability of human life on earth.

a. True
b. False

4. In “Climate Stability,” I say the Congressional Budget Office’s estimate of the monetary cost of an aggressive carbon-reduction effort is

a. 1 to 3% of GDP
b. 10 to 15% of GDP

5. True or false: In “Climate Stability,” I show that, according to public opinion surveys, Democrats and Republicans agree that climate change is occurring and human activity is the chief cause.

a. True
b. False

WEIGHT

1. In “Weight Moderation,” I show that the obesity rate in the US has been rising since around

a. 1950
b. 1980
c. 2010

2. In “Weight Moderation,” I say the main cause of rising obesity in the United States is

a. Less exercise
b. Less smoking
c. Increased eating
d. Increased consumption of sugar

3. In “Weight Moderation,” I say which of the following is a potential empirical problem for the hypothesis that increased eating is the main cause of rising obesity?

a. Average calorie consumption in the US appears to have flattened out since 2000, yet the obesity rate has continued to rise
b. The obesity rate has been rising most in the US states where people eat least

4. In “Weight Moderation,” I say the hypothesis that rising income inequality is a key cause of rising obesity is strongly supported by what evidence?

a. The cross-country pattern of change over time
b. The cross-state pattern of change over time
c. Neither A nor B

5. In “Weight Moderation,” I say the hypothesis that rising economic insecurity is a key cause of rising obesity is strongly supported by what evidence?

a. Over-time developments in Canada
b. The pattern among more and less affluent women after the mid-1990s welfare reform
c. Neither A nor B

GUNS

1. In “Guns,” I say that over the past half century mass shootings have killed an average of how many people per year in the United States?

a. 20
b. 20,000

2. True or false: In “Guns,” I show that when we look over time in the United States, the number of guns in private hands correlates very strongly with the rate of gun homicides.

a. True
b. False

3. True or false: In “Guns,” I show that across countries there is a strong positive correlation between the number of guns per person and the rate of gun homicides, but when the United States is excluded there is little or no correlation

a. True
b. False

4. True or false: In “Guns,” I say the ban on assault weapons from 1994 to 2004 was a key contributor to the sharp drop in homicides in the US that began in the early 1990s.

a. True
b. False

5. True or false: In “Guns,” I show that US states with stricter regulations on gun ownership tend to have lower rates of gun deaths

a. True
b. False

CITIES

1. In “Affordable Renting,” I say the reason more Americans have been moving to cities in recent decades is

a. Cities have lots of professional-analytical jobs
b. Crime has decreased in cities
c. Cities have newer, better restaurants, bars, clubs, and coffee shops
d. All of the above

2. True or false: In “Affordable Renting,” I say the main reason why more Americans don’t live in large cities is that housing is very expensive.

a. True
b. False

3. In “Affordable Renting,” I say the chief barrier to increasing the supply of housing in America’s large cities is

a. High taxes
b. Zoning rules, height restrictions, and historical preservation designations

4. True or false: In “Affordable Renting,” I say that for low-income Americans, the problem of housing affordability won’t be solved simply by increasing the supply of rental units.

a. True
b. False

5. In “Affordable Renting,” I say we could improve low-income Americans’ access to affordable renting by

a. Giving more of them a housing voucher
b. Providing a lawyer for low-income persons who are being evicted
c. Both A and B

INCLUSION

1. In “Inclusion: African Americans,” I examine trends among whites and blacks on a range of indicators of education, income, health, family, and other outcomes since the early 1960s. On most of these indicators, African Americans have made progress

a. In an absolute sense
b. Relative to whites
c. Both A and B

2. In “Inclusion: African Americans,” I show that since the early 1960s the gap between whites and African Americans has narrowed in

a. Life expectancy
b. Incarceration
c. Marriage
d. Median wealth

3. In “Inclusion: African Americans,” I discuss two recent studies that examined police shootings of unarmed black men. Both studies concluded that

a. Blacks are more likely than whites to be stopped by police and to experience use of force if stopped
b. Among those stopped or arrested, blacks aren’t more likely than whites to be shot at or killed by police
c. Both A and B

4. True or false: In “Inclusion: African Americans,” I show that public opinion survey data suggest no change in whites’ embrace of African Americans since the 1960s.

a. True
b. False

5. True or false: In “Inclusion: African Americans,” I show that very few blacks think discrimination is still common.

a. True
b. False

ECONOMIC SECURITY

1. In “Stable Income and Expenses,” I report that according to various studies of large year-to-year income decline in the US, since the late 1970s its incidence has

a. Increased
b. Stayed the same
c. Decreased

2. True or false: In “Stable Income and Expenses,” I show that in countries with greater public insurance generosity (a bigger welfare state), year-to-year individual earnings declines are less likely to result in a large household income decline.

a. True
b. False

3. In “Stable Income and Expenses,” I show that from the early 1970s through the early 2010s, the share of Americans without health insurance

a. Stayed constant at around 15%
b. Decreased slowly from 50% to 15%

4. In “Stable Income and Expenses,” I say that since 1990 inflation has tended to be _______ in rich democratic nations like the US.

a. High
b. Low

5. True or false: In “Stable Income and Expenses,” I say that many Americans who experience income instability can’t use wealth as a backstop because they have little or no wealth.

a. True
b. False

INCOME INEQUALITY

1. In “Income Inequality,” I say that the largest and most sustained increase in income inequality in the United States has been between

a. The top 1% and everyone else
b. The top 10% and everyone else
c. The middle and the bottom

2. In “Income Inequality,” I show that in the US the top 1%’s share of income has increased since the late 1970s because

a. Incomes at the top have been stagnant, and incomes in the middle and below have decreased
b. Incomes at the top have increased rapidly, and incomes in the middle and below have increased slowly

3. In “Income Inequality,” I say the tax cuts of presidents Reagan (1980s) and Bush (early 2000s) are

a. The chief cause of rising income inequality in the US
b. One of a number of contributors to rising income inequality in the US

4. In “Income Inequality,” I show that income inequality in the US between households in the middle and those at the bottom

a. Is greater than in other rich nations
b. Has increased since the late 1970s
c. Both A and B

5. True or false: In “Income Inequality,” I say that during the period of rising income inequality in the United States, government has responded by significantly increasing redistribution from the rich to the poor.

a. True
b. False

BALANCING WORK AND FAMILY

1. True or false: In “Work-Family-Leisure Balance,” I say that more than 25% of American employees get zero days of paid sick leave.

a. True
b. False

2. In “Work-Family-Leisure Balance,” I show that countries with generous public paid parental leave programs typically allow parents how many months off after the birth of a child?

a. 2
b. 12

3. In “Work-Family-Leisure Balance,” I say American parents with a child younger than age 5 in out-of-home care usually pay about _______ per year for that care.

a. $9,000
b. $90,000

4. In “Work-Family-Leisure Balance,” I show that, compared to their counterparts in most other rich democratic nations, the average employed American works _____ hours per year

a. More
b. The same number of
c. Fewer

5. In “Work-Family-Leisure Balance,” I show that most American employees have _______ holidays and vacation days than their counterparts in other affluent democratic nations.

a. More
b. The same number as
c. Fewer

RISKS AND PROTECTIONS

1. In “Social Programs,” I say government social programs tend to expand as countries get richer for each of the following reasons except

a. People want insurance against loss
b. Government bureaucrats have an incentive to expand the programs they administer
c. People care about fairness, and public social programs enhance fairness, particularly by helping to equalize opportunity
d. In many instances government social programs work well

2. In “Social Programs,” I say that reforms of public social programs in the rich democratic nations have increasingly aimed to

a. Reduce employment
b. Increase employment

3. In “Social Programs,” I show that compared to other rich democratic countries, the US has a low level of _______ spending on social programs.

a. Public
b. Private
c. Both A and B

4. In “Social Programs,” I show that in the United States since around 1980

a. One government social program has held constant or gotten more generous and the rest have been cut
b. One government social program has been cut and the rest have held constant or gotten more generous

5. In “Social Programs,” I show that in the United States the average benefit level for _______ has decreased significantly since the 1970s.

a. Unemployment insurance
b. Disability (SSDI and SSI)
c. AFDC/TANF
d. Food Stamps

FREEDOM

1. In “Personal Freedom,” I show that in matters of family — marriage, divorce, having children — personal freedom in the US since the 1960s has

a. Increased
b. Stayed the same
c. Decreased

2. True or false: In “Personal Freedom,” I show that the rise in state abortion restrictions since 2010 has sharply reduced the abortion rate in the US.

a. True
b. False

3. In “Personal Freedom,” I show that a majority of Americans support all of the following except

a. Handguns should be banned
b. Marijuana should be legal
c. Pornography should be illegal only for children or fully legal
d. When a person has a disease that cannot be cured and is living in severe pain, the law should allow a doctor to assist the patient in ending their life if the patient requests it

4. True or false: In “Personal Freedom,” I say a major exception in the trend toward increased personal freedom over the past half century is the increased incarceration of young males.

a. True
b. False

5. In “Personal Freedom,” I show that according to a composite index of personal freedom (part of the Human Freedom Index), the level of personal freedom in the US is _______ in most other rich democratic nations.

a. Higher than
b. Lower than

WORTHINESS, VIRTUE, AND TRUST: CHINA’S SOCIAL CREDIT SCORES

1. In “Inside China’s Vast New Experiment in Social Ranking,” Mara Hvistendahl says a FICO score in the United States uses a person’s personal details and financial history to create a score that will predict

a. How likely the person is to pay back loans
b. How much the person’s friends and family trust them

2. In “Inside China’s Vast New Experiment in Social Ranking,” Mara Hvistendahl says the Chinese government intends for social credit scores to indicate a person’s

a. Financial strength
b. Trustworthiness

3. In “Inside China’s Vast New Experiment in Social Ranking,” Mara Hvistendahl says information on which a person’s social credit score will be based includes

a. Their payment of court fines
b. Whether they spread online rumors
c. Their friends’ social credit scores
d. All of the above

4. In “Inside China’s Vast New Experiment in Social Ranking,” Mara Hvistendahl says a low Zhima Credit score (a precursor to the social credit score) reduces a person’s ability to

a. Rent a bike from a bike-sharing service
b. Stay in a hotel without putting down a deposit
c. Book a plane flight online
d. All of the above

5. In “Inside China’s Vast New Experiment in Social Ranking,” Mara Hvistendahl says the Chinese government’s main goal in creating social credit scores is

a. To help Chinese citizens and businesses avoid swindlers
b. To improve people’s access to loans
c. To nudge people toward certain behaviors, such as energy conservation and loyalty to the Party

MENTAL HEALTH

1. In “Mental Health,” I say the share of Americans who will experience a mental disorder at some point in their life is approximately

a. 5%
b. 50%

2. True or false: In “Mental Health,” I say that, surprisingly, there is no difference in happiness between people without and people with mental illness.

a. True
b. False

3. In “Mental Health,” I show that since the 1980s suicide

a. Hasn’t decreased in the United States
b. Has decreased significantly since the 1980s in about half of the world’s rich democratic nations
c. Both A and B

4. True or false: In “Mental Health,” I say there hasn’t been any improvement in treatment of mental illness via drugs since the 1950s.

a. True
b. False

5. True or false: In “Mental Health,” I say there hasn’t been any improvement in treatment of mental illness via therapy since the 1950s.

a. True
b. False

WHO WINS ELECTIONS AND WHY?

1. In “Voters, Groups, Parties, and Elections,” I say

a. Most Americans who call themselves “liberal” hold progressive views on issues
b. Most Americans who call themselves “conservative” hold conservative views on issues
c. Both A and B

2. In “Voters, Groups, Parties, and Elections,” I say in recent decades

a. More Americans identify as Democrats than as Republicans
b. More Americans who identify as Republicans vote compared to those who identify as Democrats
c. On average, Democrats and Republicans each get about 50% of the votes
d. All of the above

3. In “Voters, Groups, Parties, and Elections,” I say the main determinant of who wins presidential elections is

a. Which candidate gets more financial contributions from rich donors
b. Which candidate better fits the mood of voters
c. Which candidate runs a more effective campaign
d. The rate of income growth in the year of the election

4. In “Voters, Groups, Parties, and Elections,” I show that rich states tend to vote for Democratic candidates and poor states tend to vote for Republican candidates. I say the reason for this is that _______ tend to vote for Democrats in rich states and for Republicans in poor states.

a. Low-income voters
b. High-income voters

5. In “Voters, Groups, Parties, and Elections,” I say a signal that the Republican party will soon face diminishing electoral support is

a. Groups that favor Democrats are increasing as a share of the population while groups that favor Republicans are shrinking
b. Cultural conservatism is declining
c. Younger cohorts are much more likely than their predecessors to vote for Democrats
d. All of the above